August 6, 2012

A ‘learning health system’ moves from idea to action

Group Health experience shows how practice and research can inform each other

Seattle, WA—In the United States, clinicians are struggling to provide better and more affordable health care to more people—while keeping up with new scientific developments. The idea of a “learning health system” is one proposed solution for rapidly applying the best available scientific evidence in real-time clinical practice. In the August 7 Annals of Internal Medicine, a Group Health Cooperative team describes the experience of turning this intriguing concept into action.

“In a learning health system, evidence and practice come together in a virtuous cycle, influencing each other,” first author Sarah M. Greene, MPH, said. “At Group Health, we strive to translate evidence into practice and policy quickly. At the same time, we try to align our research with the questions that clinicians and administrators need to answer ASAP.”

Ms. Greene is a director of strategy and business development at Group Health, a nonprofit health system that provides care and coverage in Washington state. She is also an affiliate investigator at Group Health’s research arm, Group Health Research Institute. Her coauthors were Robert J. Reid, MD, PhD; Group Health’s associate medical director for research translation and an associate investigator at Group Health Research Institute; and Eric B. Larson, MD, MPH, Group Health’s vice president for research and Group Health Research Institute’s executive director.

“Researchers and clinicians are realizing that innovation is not enough to fix the nation's health care system," Dr. Larson said. “We need to move innovations immediately into real-world health care settings, and learning health systems are a way to do this.”

Strong leadership support and a growing partnership between research and clinical operations have made it possible for Group Health to evolve as a learning health system, Ms. Greene explained. This partnership has fostered a culture and an infrastructure to facilitate rapid learning.

“Ongoing communication, engagement, and flexibility are essential,” Dr. Reid said. “The learning system always asks, ‘how can we keep improving?’”

This shared ongoing commitment to leverage scientific knowledge and evaluate changes in real time for rapid, point-of-care improvements has enabled Group Health to move various innovations forward in recent years:

  • Patient-centered “medical home” primary care teams at each of its 25 medical centers
  • More judicious prescribing of long-term opioids for chronic noncancer pain
  • Shared decision making to ensure that treatments are more consistent with patients’ values and preferences
  • Studying high-end imaging (e.g., CT scans) throughout the organization, with the ultimate goal of performing these tests when really needed
  • Value-based benefit design, using incentives and disincentives to steer patients toward the most effective, evidence-based  services—and away from unproven ones

“Too often, researchers and clinicians operate in separate worlds, with different time horizons,” Ms. Greene said. Although the pace of research is accelerating, she added, it is still far slower than the urgent time frame inherent in clinical care.

“Researchers who seek to improve care should reconsider spreading our findings only through journal articles and conference presentations,” she said. “We need to think carefully about dissemination tools that really work well for reaching clinical leaders.” Broader internal and external dissemination includes newsletters, trade publications, websites, reports in the media, and meetings with stakeholders including patients, clinicians, and administrators.

Like the other 18 members of the Health Care Systems Research Network, Group Health is a care-delivery system that has its own research arm (Group Health Research Institute). Operating both clinical and research functions makes it easier for a health organization to become a learning health system, Ms. Greene said. So do recent developments in health information technology and a growing health data infrastructure to access and apply evidence in real time.

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) defines a learning health system as “one in which progress in science, informatics, and care culture align to generate new knowledge as an ongoing, natural byproduct of the care experience, and seamlessly refine and deliver best practices for continuous improvement in health and health care.” Ms Greene and Dr Larson participated in proceedings at the IOM that ultimately developed these ideas.

“The nation’s investment in medical research demands that we do more with the knowledge we generate,” the authors conclude in their Annals article. “Rapid-learning health systems can ensure return on that investment.”

Health Care Systems Research Network

The Health Care Systems Research Network includes 19 research centers, each associated with a health care delivery system. Researchers at the centers collaborate on multi‑site studies in real-world health care settings across the United States and in Israel. With access to information on more than 16 million ethnically and geographically diverse patients, these researchers are finding solutions for common and rare health problems. Since 1994, the Network has been answering pressing questions about keeping people healthy and delivering effective care.

About Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute

Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute (KPWHRI), formerly Group Health Research Institute, improves the health and health care of Kaiser Permanente members and the public. The Institute has conducted nonproprietary public-interest research on preventing, diagnosing, and treating major health problems since 1983. Government and private research grants provide our main funding. Follow KPWHRI research on Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest, LinkedIn, or YouTube. For more information, go to: www.kpwashingtonresearch.org.

About Kaiser Permanente 

Kaiser Permanente is committed to helping shape the future of health care. We are recognized as one of America’s leading health care providers and not-for-profit health plans. Founded in 1945, Kaiser Permanente has a mission to provide high-quality, affordable health care services and to improve the health of our members and the communities we serve. We currently serve more than 12.2 million members in eight states and the District of Columbia. Care for members and patients is focused on their total health and guided by their personal Permanente Medical Group physicians, specialists and team of caregivers. Our expert and caring medical teams are empowered and supported by industry-leading technology advances and tools for health promotion, disease prevention, state-of-the-art care delivery and world-class chronic disease management. Kaiser Permanente is dedicated to care innovations, clinical research, health education and the support of community health. For more information, go to: kp.org/share.

The learning health system

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Study link:

Implementing the learning health system: from concept to action


Media contact

For more on Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute news, please contact:

Rebecca Hughes
Rebecca.f.hughes@kp.org

206-287-2055

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